versão impressa ISSN 0873-6561
Etnográfica v.15 n.2 Lisboa jun. 2011
The past is a foreign country? Acculturation theory and the anthropology of globalization
* Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal; email@example.com.
Contemporary anthropology has developed a consistent interest in the study of modes of circulation of people, objects and ideas associated with current cultural globalization. This interest is usually presented as a new development in anthropological theory and its possible predecessors, such as diffusionism and acculturation theory, dismissed as irrelevant. Focusing on the works of Melville Herskovits and Roger Bastide, this article argues for a less biased imaged of acculturation theory and stresses the ways in which some of its achievements can inspire current approaches to cultural globalization.
Keywords: globalization, acculturation theory, history of anthropology, diffusionism, Melville Herskovits, Roger Bastide.
The past is a foreign country? A teoria da aculturação e a antropologia da globalização
A antropologia contemporânea tem vindo a desenvolver um interesse consistente pelo estudo dos modos de circulação de pessoas, objectos e ideias associados à globalização. Esse interesse é usualmente apresentado como um novo desenvolvimento na teoria antropológica e os seus possíveis antecedentes, como o difusionismo e a teoria da aculturação, são vistos como irrelevantes. Debruçando-se sobre o trabalho de Melville Herskovits e de Roger Bastide, este artigo defende a necessidade de uma imagem menos distorcida da teoria da aculturação e sublinha o modo como alguns dos seus contributos podem inspirar as discussões contemporâneas sobre globalização cultural.
Palavras-chave: globalização, aculturação, história da antropologia, difusionismo, Melville Herskovits, Roger Bastide.
Full text only available in PDF format.
Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.
AGIER, Michel, 2001, Distúrbios identitários em tempos de globalização, Mana, 7 (2): 7-33. [ Links ]
ANESH, A., 2006, Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization. Durham-London, Duke University Press.
APPADURAI, Arjun, 1990, Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy, in M. Featherstone (ed.), Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. London-Newbury Park-New Delhi, Sage Publications, 295-310.
APTER, Andrew, 2004, Herskovitss heritage: rethinking syncretism in the African diaspora, in A. M. Leopold and J. S. Jensen (eds.), Syncretism in Religion: A Reader. London, Routledge, 160-184.
BARRETT, Stanley, 1984, The Rebirth of Anthropological Theory. Toronto, The University of Toronto Press.
BASHCOW, Ira, 2004, A neo-boasian conception of cultural boundaries, American Antrhopologist, 106 (3): 443-458.
BASTIDE, Roger, 1960, Les Religions Africaines au Brésil. Paris, PUF.
, 1967, Les Amériques Noires. Paris, Payot.
, 2005 , O Candomblé da Bahia. São Paulo, Companhia das Letras.
BAUMAN, Zygmunt, 2007, Liquid Times: Living in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge, Polity Press.
BENEDICT, Ruth, 1934, Patterns of Culture. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
BRUMAN, Christoph, 1998, The anthropological study of globalization: towards an agenda for the second phase, Anthropos, 93: 495-506.
, 1999, Writing for culture, Current Anthropology, 40 (supplement February): 1-13.
BUNZL, Matti, 2004, Boas, Foucault, and the Native Anthropologist: notes toward a neo-Boasian anthropology, American Anthropologist, 106 (3): 435-442.
CALDEIRA, Teresa, 2000, City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in São Paulo. Berkeley, Berkeley University Press.
COMAROFF, Jean, and John COMAROFF, 2001, Millennial capitalism: first thought on a second coming, J. Comaroff and J. Comaroff (eds.), Millennial Capitalism and the Culture of Neo-Liberalism. Durham-London, Duke University Press, 1-56.
DANTAS, Beatriz Góis, 1988, Vovó Nagô e Papai Branco: Usos e Abusos da África no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Edições Graal.
ERIKSEN, Thomas, 2000, Ethnicity and culture: a second look, in R. Bendix and H. Roodenburg (eds.), Managing Ethnicity: Perspectives from Folklore Studies, History and Anthropology. Amsterdam, Het Spinhuis, 185-205.
EVANS, Brad, 2006, Where was Boas during the Renaissance in Harlem? Diffusion, race, and the culture paradigm in the history of anthropology, in R. Handler (ed.), Central Sites, Peripheral Visions: Cultural and Institutional Crossings in the History of Anthropology. Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press, 69-98.
FREYRE, Gilberto, 1957 , Casa Grande & Senzala. Lisboa, Livros do Brasil.
FRIEDMAN, Jonathan, 1990, Being in the world: globaliaztion and localization, in M. Featherstone (ed.), Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. London-Newbury Park-New Delhi, Sage Publications, 311-328.
GARCÍA Canclini, Néstor, 1995, Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.
GERSHENHORN, Jerry, 2004, Melville Herskovits and the Racial Politics of Knowledge. Lincoln, The University of Nebraska Press.
GLAZER, Nathan, and Daniel MOYNIHAN, 1963, Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians and Irish of New York City. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.
GUPTA, Akhil, and James FERGUSON (eds.), 1987, Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of a Field Science. Berkeley, University of California Press.
, 1992, Beyond culture: space, identity, and the politics of difference, Cultural Anthropology, 7 (1): 6-23.
HAHN, Hans Peter, 2008, Diffusionism, appropriation and globalization: some remarks on current debates in anthropology, Anthropos, 103: 191-202.
HANDLER, Richard, and Jocelyn LINNEKIN, 1984, Tradition, genuine or spurious, Journal of American Folklore, 97 (385): 273-290.
HANNERZ, Ulf, 1997, Fluxos, fronteiras, híbridos: Palavras-chave da antropologia transnacional, Mana, 3 (1): 7-39.
HERSKOVITS, Melville, 1937, Life in a Haitian Village. New York, Alfred Knopf.
, 1938, Acculturation: The Study of Cultural Contact. New York, J. J. Augustin Publisher.
, 1948, Man and His Works: The Science of Cultural Anthropology. New York, Alfred Knopf.
, 1966 , Problem, method and theory in Afroamerican studies, The New World Negro: Selected Papers in Afroamerican Studies. N / l, Minerva Press, 43-61.
, 1966 , The present status and needs of Afroamerican Research, The New World Negro: Selected Papers in Afroamerican Studies. N / l, Minerva Press, 23-41.
, 1998 , The Myth of the Negro Past. Boston, MA, Beacon Press.
HERSKOVITS, Melville, and Frances HERSKOVITS, 1934, Rebel Destiny: Among the Bush Negroes of Dutch Guiana. New York, Whittlesey House.
INDA, Jonathan, and Renato ROSALDO, 2002, Introduction, in J. Inda and R. Rosaldo (eds.), The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader. Malden, MA-Oxford, Blackwell, 1-36.
JACKSON, Walter, 1986, Melville Herskovits and the search for Afro-American culture, in G. Stocking (ed.), Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict and Others: Essays on Culture and Personality. Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press, 95-126.
KAHN, Aisha, 2007, Good to think? Creolization, optimism, and agency, Current Anthropology, 48 (5): 653-673.
KIRSHENBLATT-GIMBLETT, Barbara, 1998, Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage. Berkeley, University of California Press.
KUKLICK, Henrika, 1991, The Savage Within: The Social History of British Anthropology, 1885-1945. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
LATOUR, Bruno, 2005, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
LEAL, João, 2009, Travelling rituals: Azorean Holy Ghost festivals in Southeastern New England, in K. Holton and A. Klimt (eds.), Community, Culture and the Makings of Identity: Portuguese-Americans along the Eastern Seaboard. Dartmouth, MA, Center for Portuguese Studies and Culture, University of Massachusetts (Dartmouth), 127-144.
LOWIE, Robert, 1920, Primitive Society. New York, Boni and Livreright.
MARCUS, George, 1998 , Ethnography in / of the world system: the emergence of multi-sited ethnography, Ethnography through Thick & Thin. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 79-104.
MATORY, J. Lorand, 2006, The New World surrounds an ocean: theorizing the live dialogue between African and African American cultures, in K. Yelvington (ed.), Afro-Atlantic Dialogues: Anthropology in the Diasporas. Santa Fe, NM, and Oxford, School of American Research Press James Curley, 151-192.
MEAD, Margaret, 1932, The Changing Culture of an Indian Tribe. New York, Columbia University Press.
MICHAELS, Eric, 2002, Holywood iconography: a Warlpiri reading, in J. Inda, and R. Rosaldo (eds.), The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader. Malden, MA-Oxford, Blackwell, 311-324.
MINTZ, Sidney, 1986, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. London, Penguin Books.
MINTZ, Sidney, and Richard PRICE, 2003 , O Nascimento da Cultura Afro-Americana: Uma Perspectiva Antropológica. Rio de Janeiro, Pallas Centro de Estudos Afro-Brasileiros.
PALMIÉ, Stephan, 2006, Creolization and its discontents, Annual Review of Anthropology, 35: 433-456.
PEIXOTO, Fernanda, 2000, Diálogos Brasileiros: Uma Análise da Obra de Roger Bastide. São Paulo, Edusp-Fapesp.
PORTES, Alejandro, 2003, Conclusion: theoretical convergencies and empirical evidence in the study of immigrant transnationalism, International Migration Review, 37(3): 874-892.
PRICE, Sally, 2006, Seaming connections: artworls of the African diaspora, in K. Yelvington (ed.), Afro-Atlantic Dialogues: Anthropology in the Diasporas. Santa Fe, NM, and Oxford, School of American Research Press James Curley, 83-114.
REDFIELD, Robert, Melville HERSKOVITS, and Ralph LINTON, 1936, Memorandum on acculturation, American Anthropologist, 38: 149-152.
RODSETH, Lars, 2005, Giving up the Geist: power, history and the culture concept in the long Boasian tradition, Critique of Anthropology, 25 (1): 5-15.
ROSENBLATT, Daniel, 2004, An anthropology made safe for culture: patterns of practice and the politics of difference in Ruth Benedict, American Anthropologist, 106 (3): 459-472.
ROUSE, Roger, 2002, Mexican migration and the social space of Modernism, in J. Inda and R. Rosaldo (eds.), The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader. Malden, MA, and Oxford, Blackwell, 157-171.
SCHNEIDER, Arnd, 2003, On appropriation: a critical reappraisal of the concept and its application in global art practices, Social Anthropology, 11 (2): 215-229.
SHAW, Rosalind, and Charles STEWART, 1994, Introduction: problematizing syncretism, in Charles Stewart and Rosalind Shaw (eds.), Syncretism / Anti-Syncretism: The Politics of Religious Synthesis. London and New York, Routledge, 1-26.
SLOTERDIJK, Peter, 2008 , Palácio de Cristal: Para Uma Teoria Filosófica da Globalização. Lisboa, Relógio DÁgua.
STOCKING, George, 1983, The ethnographers magic: fieldwork in British anthropology from Tylor to Malinowski, in G. Stocking (ed.), Observers Observed: Essays on Ethnographic Fieldwork. Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press, 70-120.
, 1995, After Tylor: British Social Anthropology, 1888-1951. London, Athlone.
TOMLINSON, John, 2003, Globalization and cultural identity, in D. Held and A. McGrew, The Global Transformations Reader. Oxford, Polity Press, 269-277.
TROUILLOT, Michel-Rolph, 2003, Global Transformations: Anthropology of the Modern World. New York, Palgrave.
TSING, Anna, 2005, Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
VINCENT, Joan, 1990, Anthropology and Politics: Visions, Traditions, and Trends. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press.
WOLF, Eric, 1997 , Europe and the People without History. Berkeley, University of California Press.
YAN, Yunxiang, 2005, Chinas Big Mac attack, in J. Watson and M. Caldwell (eds.), The Cultural Politics of Food and Eating. Malden, MA, Blackwell Publishing, 80-103.
YELVINGTON, Kevin (ed.), 2006a, Afro-Atlantic Dialogues: Anthropology in the Diasporas. Santa Fe, NM, and Oxford, School of American Research Press James Curley.
, 2006b, The invention of Africa in Latin America and the Caribbean: political discourse and anthropological praxis, 1920-1940, in K. Yelvington (ed.), Afro-Atlantic Dialogues: Anthropology in the Diasporas, Santa Fe, NM, and Oxford, School of American Research Press James Curley, 35-82.