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Análise Psicológica

Print version ISSN 0870-8231


TORRES, Nuno; SANTOS, António J.  and  SANTOS, Orlando. Qualidade da vinculação ao pai e à mãe e o desenvolvimento da amizade recíproca em crianças de idade pré-escolar. Aná. Psicológica [online]. 2008, vol.26, n.3, pp.435-445. ISSN 0870-8231.

Attachment research suggests that children with secure attachments are more able to construct meaningful relationships with peers. Few studies, however, have attempted to map early attachment security to the formation and maintenance of preschool friendships. Special attention has been paid to affiliative relationships (particularly friendships) because these are presumed to be of special importance with respect to a number of developmental outcomes and social adjustment indices. The present study examined the relations between mother-child and father-child attachment relationships and the number of child preschool friendships. Thirty-five mother/child and father/child dyads from bi-parental families participated in the study. Children were between 29 and 38 months of age (M=31.75; SD=2.56), all Caucasian, 23 were girls. 24 were firstborn and 31 had siblings. Both parents were employed outside home, and families are from middle class status according to local community standards. The AQS (Waters, 1995) was used to measure the organization of children’s secure base behavior with both parents at 2,5 years of age. Subsequently, two sociometric measures were used at 4 years of age: 1) Nominations (Marshall & McCandless, 1957), a standard measure composed of attributions of positive and negative nominations, and 2) Rating-scale (Asher, Singleton, Tinsley, & Hymel, 1979). The correlation between the independent AQS scores for fathers and mothers was positive and reached significance levels, (r=.47, p<.05). Thus, there was consistency in child secure base behavior across visits with each parent. There was a significant positive correlation between secure base behavior with fathers and the number of reciprocal friendships (r=.43, p<.05). In the present study secure children with fathers tend to have more reciprocal friends, a result that may indicate the existence of a distinct relational effect of father’s style of interaction.

Keywords : Father attachment; mother attachment; reciprocal friendship.

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